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Complex Word Stress

1: Stress on complex words

2: What is stress? Production: speakers use of a more muscular energy used than in unstressed syllable. Perception: Stressed syllable are more prominence than unstressed one(s), typically characterized as having: Louder sound Longer sound Higher pitch Different quality

3: Level of stress Unstressed: having no recognizable amount of prominence. Primary stress (): Stress which has the most prominence. Secondary stress (,): Stronger than unstressed but weaker than the primary sterss. Identify three of them on the following words: PronunciationPhotographic

4: Stress maze

5: Placement of stress Which syllables do we stress? Generally, stress rules can depend on: The grammatical category (abstract, conduct, export, present) The number of syllables The phonological structure Whether its a simple or complex word

6: The phonological structure Strong syllable A rhyme which either has a syllable nucleus which is a long vowel or diphthong, or a vowel followed by more than one coda. A strong syllable is stressed. Weak syllable A rhyme which has a syllable nucleus which is a short vowel and no coda or the syllable nucleus is the schwa vowel. A weak syllable is not stressed. Exception: Honest, Perfect.

7: What is complex words? Words composed more than one grammatical unit Example: carelessness Two types of complex words: a. words made by basic words (stem) by adding affixes (prefix or suffix) (prefix) un (stem) pleasant (stem) good (suffix) nesss b. compound words

8: Affix receiving primary stress semicircle, personality. stress on the stem untidy, marketing stress shifted to different syllable magnet magnetic

9: Suffixes carrying stress -ee : refugee, evacuee -eer: mountainer, volunteer -ese: Portuguese, journalese, Japanese.

10: Suffixes not affecting stress placement -able: comfortable -age: anchorage -al: refusal -ful: wonderful -like: birdlike -less: powerless -ly: hurriedly -ness: happiness -ous: poisonous -fy: glorify

11: Suffixes that influence stess in stem -ous : advantageous -graphy: photography -ial: proverbial -ic: climatic -ion: perfection -ty: tranquility -ive: reflexive

12: Compound words Words that are characterized as having two independent words. Armchair, open-minded, desk lamp. Normally on the first word: typewriter, sunrise, car ferry, suitcase, teacup. Adjectival first element: bad-tempered, ugly-looking, half-timbered, heavy-handed. (with secondary stress being the first word) First element as number: second-class, three-wheeler, five-finger. Functioning as adverbs: down stream, head first, North-East. Functioning as verbs: downgrade, ill-treat, back-pedal.

13: Variable stress Not all stress pattern is fixed, either because of other words occurring next to the word in question or because not all speakers agree on the placement of stress. A final stressed compounds tend to move to the preceding syllables: bad-temperedand a bad-tempered person heavy-handedand a heavy-handed sentece Disagreement among speakers: Controversy, ice cream, kilometer, formidable.

14: The odd one out? English, Short, Sleep, Observe. Permit, Subject, Eject, Contrast. Otherwise, Chinese, Refugee, Volunteer. Controversy, kilometer, formidable, language. Tranquility, perfection, advantageous, poisonous. Cost-effective, suitcase, teacup, Ill-tempered.

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