1: The Germanic Languages. Proto-Germanic. Old English. Phonology. Lecture 1.
2: Principal Features of Germanic Languages The First consonant shift (Grimms Law). Verners Law Periods in the History of English OE Heptarchy. OE dialects OE Vocalism OE Consonant System
3: Principal Features of Germanic Languages Principal Features of Germanic Languages English belongs to: The Indo-European family of languages; The Germanic branch. West Germanic group
4: Proto-Indo-European (PIE) Proto-Indo-European (PIE) - some single language, which must have been spoken thousands of years ago by some comparatively small body of people in a relatively restricted geographical area
5: Proto-Germanic (PG) Proto-Germanic (PG) - a dialect of Indo-European all Germanic languages are descended from; We have no records of the PG language. We can reconstruct it (Gothic).
6: Proto-Germanic (PG) PG is a highly inflected language; the word stress was put on the 1st syllable (fixed accent); PIE verb bheronom – PG beranan – OE beran – ME beren, bere – ME bear
7: 2. The First consonant shift. Grimms Law the 1st sound-shifting; after the early 19th c. philologist Jakob Grimm, who analysed it.
8: 2. The First consonant shift. Grimms Law In PIE there was a rich array of stop consonants; This system underwent great changes in PG; It consists of 3 major consonant changes.
9: PIE aspirated voiced stops Gmc voiced stops Bh b Sans. bharami – ModE bear Dh d Sans. rudhiras – ModE red Gh g Gr. chen – Ger Gans
10: PIE voiceless stops Gmc voiceless fricatives P f L. pater – ModE father T th L. dentis – ModE tooth K h L. cornu – ModE horn
11: PIE voiced stops Gmc voiceless stops b p L. turba – ModE thorp d t L. dens – ModE tooth g k L. ager – ModE acre
12: Verners Law. The Second Consonant Shift (1875) Certain apparent exceptions to Grimms Law were subsequently explained by Karl Verner (a Danish scholar) and others.
13: Verners Law. Karl Verner showed that voiceless fricatives became voiced if the preceding syllable was unstressed, but otherwise remained unchanged. Latin centum - English hundred.
14: Verners Law. PIE f Gmc v PIE th Gmc d Lat pater – Gth fadar PIE k Gmc g PIE s Gmc z r in North and West Germanic) rotacizm Gth. raisjan – OE ræran
15: 3. Periods in the History of English Traditionally, the history of the English language is divided into 3 major periods. This division was first proposed by an English philologist, Henry Sweet, in 1873.
16: Periods in the History of English Old English (Anglo-Saxon) (5 c. -1066) the period of full inflexions; Middle English (1066 – 1485) of levelled inflexions; Modern English (1485 - . . . ) of lost inflexions.
17: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects The earliest inhabitants of the British Isles, were Celtic speakers. The Celts had been living in England until being invaded by the Romans in 43 CE. and Latin never overtook the Celtic language.
18: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects About the year 449 AD began the invasion of Britain by certain Germanic tribes, the founders of the English nation: Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians
20: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects By 700, the Anglo-Saxons had occupied most of England and a considerable part of southern Scotland (but for Cornwall and Wales). The language of Anglo-Saxons became the dominant one.
21: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects In the 7th c. Germanic tribes set up seven kingdoms called the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, rule of the seven kingdoms .
22: Kent Kent Northumbria Mercia (West Midlands) Wessex (central Southern England) East Anglia Essex Sussex
23: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects The surviving texts form the OE period are in 4 main dialects: West saxon! (the literary standard) Kentish Mercia Anglian Northumbria
25: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects Although West Saxon became the literary standard of unified England, it is not the direct ancestor of modern standard English, which is mainly derived from an Anglian dialect
26: 4. OE Heptarchy. OE dialects The conversion of the English to Christianity began in 597 with St Augustine, and took a century to complete; With Christianity came writing.
27: 5. OE Vocalism All living languages undergo changes. What causes such changes?
28: Alterations: Qualitative // quantitative; Dependent // independent
29: Anglo-Frisian Brightening (or First Fronting). The Anglo-Frisian languages underwent a sound change in their development from Proto-Germanic by which the vowel ā was fronted to ǣ, unless followed by a nasal consonant (n, m). Cf. OE mann and OE dæġ
30: Restoration of a or Retraction Later in Old English, short /æ/ (and in some dialects long /æː/ as well), was backed to /ɑ/ when there was a back vowel in the following syllable.
31: Restoration of a or Retraction Nominative dæġ dagas Accusative dæġ dæġ Genitive dæġes daga Dative dæġe dagum For further references see pg. 76 // Rastorguyeva T. A. A History of English. - M. : Vysšaja Škola, 2003. - 347 p. )
32: OE Breaking or fracture it is diphthongization of short vowels before certain consonant clusters (before r, l, h consonant and before h final). It is vowels a and e that underwent fracture.
33: OE Breaking or fracture Gth. kalds – WS ceald Breaking produced a new set of vowels in OE /ea/ and /eo/.
34: OE Breaking or fracture For further references see pg. 78-80 // Rastorguyeva T. A. A History of English. - M. : Vysšaja Škola, 2003. - 347 p.
35: Palatal diphthongization OE vowels also change under the influence of the initial palatal consonants ʒ j, c k and cluster sc sc. As a result of palatalization the vowel e and æ are diphthongized. E. g. : OE scÆmu OE sceamu shame
36: Palatal diphthongization For further references see pg. 78-80 // Rastorguyeva T. A. A History of English. - M. : Vysšaja Škola, 2003. - 347 p. )
37: Front mutation or i-umlaut It was a series of changes to vowels which took place when there was an i, ī or j in the following syllable. Subsequently, the i, ī or j disappeared, or changed to e.
39: Front mutation or i-umlaut Front mutation made considerable changes in the pronunciation of English. Examples of i-umlaut in Mod English: food and feed, goose and geese, tooth and teeth, blood and bleed, man and men.
40: Front mutation or i-umlaut i-umlaut led to the appearance of new vowels: y and y: arose from palatal mutation; Diphthongs ie and ie:
41: Front mutation or i-umlaut For further references see pg. 80-82 // Rastorguyeva T. A. A History of English. - M. : Vysšaja Škola, 2003. - 347 p. )
42: Velar umlaut For further references see pg. 82 // Rastorguyeva T. A. A History of English. - M. : Vysšaja Škola, 2003. - 347 p.
43: 6. OE Consonant System For further references see pg. 85-90 // Rastorguyeva T. A. A History of English. - M. : Vysšaja Škola, 2003. - 347 p.